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Propagating Wild Yeast for Reenactments


Today, if you asked 50 people about how to start a wild yeast culture for making sourdough bread, it’s likely you’ll get 100 different answers, but in reality, all it takes is a little bit of flour, some water and…

Which Yeast (Time 0_00_55;12)

September 29, 2017


Akara Recipe


Akara is a simple, easy to make snack that was frequently made in the 18th and early 19th centuries. Dried Black-eyed Peas Onions Parsley flour Boiling water Lard First, pulverize the dried black-eyed peas into very small pieces. Add to…

akara-time-0_00_0921


A Fanciful Yet Easy Asparagus Soup


This delicious Asparagus Soup recipe from Elizabeth Cleland’s A new and easy methods of cookery (1755). Many of this recipe's techniques, including roux, food coloring, bone broth, and court-bouillon (the ingredients boiled in the soup that are removed before eating)…

Asp6

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September 28, 2017


Rye and Indian Bread


This is called Rye and Indian bread, because it’s made of part rye flour and part Indian meal or sometimes we call it cornmeal. You can use just those two grains to make the flour, or you can add wheat…

rye-and-indian-bread-time-0_08_1818


Simple Boiled Plum Pudding


Many people hear the word pudding today and they think about some little custardy stuff in a cup or something you buy at the grocery store in a box and mix it up with some milk. Pudding has a much…

Plum Pudding (Time 0_11_05;10)


An Onion Soup Recipe from 1801


This recipe for onion soup is out of John Mollard’s 1801 cookbook, “The Art of Cooking Made Easy and Refined”. 4 oz. Butter 4 tbsps. Flour 8 midsized Onions of choice Salt 3 qts. Beef Stock 4 Egg Yolks 1…

onion-soup-time-0_00_4313


A White Pot Recipe


A White Pot with Raisins and Dates Serves 1 - 6 (depending on how polite you are) The name “White Pot” originates from the Devon region of England. But this sweet, buttery custard bread pudding, layered with sweetmeats (dried fruits)…

Also Known as a White Pudding


Master Wood Turner Erv Tschanz


In this special video, master wood turner Erv Tschanz shares his passion for the craft. Erv is one of several skilled artisans that sells handcrafted items through Jas. Townsend & Son. The treenware cherry wood plate being made in this…

Screen Shot 2017-09-21 at 1.06.59 PM

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September 13, 2017


Weaver/Trapper Interview: Experiencing History Through Reenacting


We've been busy interviewing fellow reenactors for the purpose of inspiring and encouraging viewers who are interested in getting involved in historical reenacting but don't know how to begin. Today we interview Tony Baker, a weaver by trade, who has…

Screen Shot 2017-09-21 at 12.45.21 PM

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Starting a Living History Group from Scratch


It took an idea and a group of friends, and it went from there. Albert Roberts tells the story of how the innovative historical interpretive group "The HMS Acasta" was born. http://ift.tt/2wQkO31 More great information! ***************************** Our Retail Website -…

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Page 1 of 69
Propagating Wild Yeast For Reenactments

Propagating Wild Yeast for Reenactments

Today, if you asked 50 people about how to start a wild yeast culture for making sourdough bread, it’s likely you’ll get 100 different answers, but in reality, all it takes is a little bit of flour, some water and time. Now the question is, did people in the 18th century knowingly and intentionally propagate wild yeast? Our initial conclusion was yes due to the frequent references to sour bread, but as we dug deeper we found only 3 references to propagated wild yeast, none of those prior to 1790. These references were either examples of scientific experiments or were from non-European cultures.

Which Yeast (Time 0_01_56;07)

Interestingly, the typical response to these experiments is astonishment. Let me read to you a little piece from a journal dated 1790 from the transactions of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufacturing, and Commerce. The context is about a contest the society had on the manufacture of yeast. This is a man writing about experiments that he’s doing to make yeast talking about his assistant. “He accordingly brought me some small vessel with the full head of yeast upon it, assuring me with some degree of exaltation that neither oil of vitriol with chalk nor any portion of old yeast had been employed on that occasion. This greatly surprised me and I desired he would proceed with the experiment.” So his experiment had to do with having boiled water and malt and nothing else and just letting this set over time. He was cultivating wild yeast and he didn’t even know it.

Now there are many 18th century recipes for making yeast and circumstances when yeast was in short supply, but other than these experiments that I’ve already mentioned, they all have to do with propagating yeast from a little bit of preexisting yeast, so it was very surprising for these experimenters to find that you could make a yeast slurry without adding any preexisting yeast. So it’s apparent that these experiments flew against the conventional wisdom.

Which Yeast (Time 0_00_58;05)

So what does this mean for the 18th century reenactor or historic site? Should we be using a bread baked with barm or sourdough bread made with leaven? Well, it really depends on who we are trying to portray, what our culture is, what our class is, and what our climate is. The one thing we can seem to draw from this information is propagating wild yeast in the manner in which we do today to make sourdough bread is not a historically accurate option.

Transcript of Video:

For a couple of weeks now we’ve been anticipating doing an episode on cultivating wild yeast to make an 18th century sourdough bread but the more we did research the more it became apparent that this was not something that they did in the 18th century.

Now today, if you asked 50 people about how to start a wild yeast culture for making sourdough bread, it’s likely you’ll get 100 different answers, but in reality all it takes is a little bit of flour and some water and some time. Now the question remains, did people in the 18th century knowingly and intentionally propagate wild yeast? Our initial conclusion was yes due to the frequent references to sour bread but as we dug deeper we found only 3 references to propagated wild yeast, none of those prior to 1790. They were either examples of scientific experiments or they were from non-European cultures. Interestingly, the typical response to these experiments is a astonishment. Let me read to you a little piece from a journal. This is dated 1790 and it’s from the transactions of the society for the encouragement of arts, manufacturing, and commerce, and this is in context to about a contest. The society had a contest about the manufacture of yeast and this is a man writing about experiments that he’s doing to make yeast.

Here the man writes about his assistant, “He accordingly brought me some small vessel with the full head of yeast upon it, assuring me with some degree of exaltation that neither oil of vitriol with chalk nor any portion of old yeast had been employed on that occasion. This greatly surprised me and I desired he would proceed with the experiment.” So his experiment had to do with having boiled water and malt and nothing else and just letting this set over time. He was cultivating a wild yeast and he didn’t even know it.

Now there are many 18th century recipes for making yeast and circumstances when yeast was in short supply. Now other than these experiments that I’ve already mentioned, they all have to do with propagating yeast from a little bit of preexisting yeast, so it was very surprising for these experimenters to find that you could make a yeast slurry without adding any preexisting yeast. So it’s apparent that these experiments flew against the conventional wisdom.

So what does this mean for the 18th century reenactor or historic site? Should we be using a bread baked with barm or sourdough bread made with leaven? Well, it really depends on who we are trying to portray, what our culture is, what our class is, and what our climate is. The one thing we can seem to draw from this information is, is that propagating wild yeast in the manner in which we do today to make sourdough bread is not an historically accurate option.

We hope you’ve enjoyed this slightly different episode today. We want to take this opportunity to announce our new historic cooking blog SavoringThePast.net. In this cooking blog we’re going to give you authentic 18th and 19th century recipes along with some of the references and documentation that go on behind our videos. We invite you to subscribe to this new SavoringThePast.net so you can get immediate notification of new posts. Also we invite you to give us your historic cooking experiences and documentation by leaving us feedback.

SavoringThePast.net is a companion to our other blog SiftingThePast.com which is a website that’s intended to give you a snap shot though art of the lives and customs of people in the 17th, 18th, and early 19th century. I also invite you to subscribe to our YouTube channel so you can get notification of new videos as soon as they’re available and don’t forget to follow us on Facebook for all the latest news at Jas. Townsend and Son.

Jas. Townsend and Son offers hundreds of quality 18th century reproduction clothing items and personal accessories including a great line of cooking vessels and utensils. All these can be found on our website or in our print catalog and I want to thank you for watching today and I want to invite you to come along as we savor the flavors and the aromas of the 18th century.

Rye And Indian Bread

Rye and Indian Bread

This is called Rye and Indian bread, because it’s made of part rye flour and part Indian meal or sometimes we call it cornmeal. You can use just those two grains to make the flour, or you can add wheat flour.

rye-and-indian-bread-time-0_02_2609

Adding wheat flour is a good way to make it stretch as well as adding a different texture, allowing the bread to bind together better and making it a bit sturdier.

  • Yeast Sponge (made from barm)
  • ½ teacup Molasses (to taste)
  • ¾ cup Water
  • 1 cup Indian Meal
  • 1 cup Rye Flour
  • 2 cups Wheat Flour
  • 2 tsps. Salt

rye-and-indian-bread-time-0_02_4405

Add all of your ingredients together and stir until it becomes a ball. Resist the urge to add any more water to the mixture until you really get your hands into it. Knead your dough for about 10 minutes until it becomes nice and strong and doesn’t stick to your hands quite as much. Keep in mind that due to the molasses, it will continue to be at least a little bit sticky.

rye-and-indian-bread-time-0_03_1018

The yeast sponge used in this recipe is much like the sponge made in an earlier post, Making Leaven. To start this leaven, we used barm and instead of storing the yeast cake in salt, we are using cornmeal to dry it out and store it.

rye-and-indian-bread-time-0_01_5428

For this bread, you can reconstitute this yeast cake by simply crumbling it up and adding some water to it. It should be ready to use within a few hours.

Once your ball of dough is stiff but slightly sticky to the touch, line a bowl with a towel, then sprinkle a generous amount of flour onto the towel. Place your dough onto the towel good side down and allow to rest until it’s about 50% larger.

rye-and-indian-bread-time-0_07_3004

This mixture will not be as dense as cornbread but it will still be a pretty dense bread.

Make sure that your oven is preheated. When you are using an Earthen Oven to bake your bread, you will need about 2 hours to get your oven up to temperature.

rye-and-indian-bread-time-0_06_2803

When you can toss some cornmeal in and it doesn’t burn immediately, but only toasts, it’s at the correct temperature. If your oven is too hot, allow it to cool a little.

rye-and-indian-bread-time-0_07_5610

When it’s done, this bread has a wonderful texture to it. It would go great with a little bit of butter or molasses added on top.

Transcription of Video:

We’re here today at Connor Prairie in Fishers Indiana. It’s a premier living historic site and we’ve got a wonderful recipe for you. Thanks for joining us today on 18th Century Cooking.

[Jon] I’m here today with Ms. Barker and we’re going to talk about Rye and Indian bread. So, explain to me a little bit about what we’re cooking here today.

[Ms. Barker] We call it rye and Indian bread because it’s made of part rye flour and Indian meal or sometimes we call it cornmeal and you can use just those two grains to make the flour or you can use wheat flour. We’ve actually put some wheat flour into it because it’s a good way to stretch your wheat if you don’t have a whole lot. See, here in Indiana, we have a lot of corn and we grow rye very easily too and wheat is more of a second crop, so we have much more abundance of corn, so this is a bread that’s good for stretching since we eat bread three times a day, but it’s very similar to a cornbread but more of a mix between a cornbread and an Indian pudding.

[Jon] Tell me the difficulties that we’re going to have with corn and making bread. Why can’t we just make bread with corn?

[Ms. Barker] Well, you could, but it would be quite dense and a little bit crumbly, so a lot of folks, especially with making rye and Indian bread, they’ll say to scald the meal, which adds boiling water, but I find that that makes a very pasty bread. Very dense. If you like that, then that’s what you should do, but we’re just going to put plain water into in and then we’re also going to put in the wheat flour in there to give it a little bit more chew, it’ll bind together a little bit more. It’ll be a little bit sturdier.

[Jon] Well, let’s get started. What do we need to make this?

[Ms. Barker] Well, first you need to start off with some sponge. Now this is just a regular old sponge. It’s got lively yeast into it. We’ve broken down one of our yeast cakes which we’ve made recently. But it’s basically just about a cup of lively yeast, and then we’re going to add to that about a half a teacup of molasses. You can add more or less to your taste. It makes it quite dark if you add a lot of it, but if you like it sweeter, then you just do what you please. Now I’m going to add maybe ¾ cup of water and then what we have in our bowl is 1 cup of Indian meal, 1 cup of rye flour, 2 cups of wheat flour and 2 teaspoons of salt. If you want to put that in here, I’ll stir while you pour.

[Jon] Okay.

[Ms. Barker] And once it comes to a ball, you’re going to have to start kneading it and kneading it is important. Really resist the urge to add water until you really get your hands into it. So, I think it’s really important to get at least one hand into it, because the spoons not going to do you any good from this point and I come from a potter’s family, so I like to knead in a bowl.

[Jon] Mmhm.

[Ms. Barker] So you’re going to want to knead this for about 10 minutes or so until it becomes nice and strong and it’s not sticking to your hands too much. Now don’t ever look for it to never stick to your hands. Because of that molasses, it’s going to stick.

[Jon] Oh, yeah. So, tell me a little bit about the leaven that you’ve used in this. You just had a sponge, but what was this sponge made out of?

[Ms. Barker] Well, you can get it from lively emptyings, which is whenever you go to your brewer, you ask for some beer barm and that barm is what you can use to start your bread and you can start a lively yeast that you can keep at your house as long as you keep feeding it. So basically, that was a little teacup full of barm and feed it some flour and some water, equal parts and then you stir it up and that’s that. I would let it set for a bit and then that will make your bread, and if you wanted to preserve that, you could make your yeast cake, and so to that mixture that I just told you, you should add some cornmeal until it becomes a very stiff batterlike biscuit, cut them into biscuit shapes and then you just lay them out to dry.

[Jon] Right and then that’s what you’ve used here to make this.

[Ms. Barker] Yes indeed, so to reconstitute this, you just crumble this up and add some warm water to it. Two of these will make a nice loaf of bread.

[Jon] And it’ll get all active and alive again after a few hours or half a day.

[Ms. Barker] Yes, and in the summertime, you know, it’s a lot faster to make bread than in the winter.

[Jon] How’s our ball doing?

[Ms. Barker] It’s good and strong now. It’s very, very stiff, it’s still sticky to the touch, so when it gets to that point, when you’ve kneaded it about 8 or 10 minutes or so, you want to put it into a ball shape and, you see, it’s very dense.

[Jon] Yeah, that’s tough.

[Ms. Barker] But that is going to keep you going throughout the day. So, I’m going to put, we’ve got a bowl here, I’m going to line it with a towel and then sprinkle a generous amount of flour, whatever flour you please really, and then you want to put the good side down.

[Jon] So that will be the top of the loaf when we’re done?

[Ms. Barker] Yes, and then we’re just going to let it rest until it, it’s never going to get double in size, when it does get that size it’s going to be too deflated, so just let it get 50% larger. Well, we’ve got one that we made earlier, and as you see, it’s not very tall, but it’s going to be just enough chew and rise. It’s not going to be as dense as cornbread.

[Jon] So these were the same size?

[Ms. Barker] Yes, indeed.

[Jon] Okay, so it has grown a little bit, it has flattened out and we’ve got, you can see that it’s grown some.

[Ms. Barker] Mmhm, yeah and it’s light to the touch, it’s not near as dense as this. It’s got some air into it.

[Jon] That looks great.

[Ms. Barker] Earlier I prepared the oven with some hot coals from the hearth. We cheated a little bit. Every cook knows, don’t ever let your fire go out, so add some little sticks and then some larger sticks and we put them in there and with a little bit of some wood shavings, we got the fire going. It was a small fire. We let that burn down a little bit and then we pushed it to the middle and then made another small fire and let that burn down and then we put the hot coals and distributed them around the bottom to let the bricks really soak up that heat, and then I push them to the back and put my door on to really keep the heat in. Now we’re just going to wait until the coals die down completely and I’ll rake them out.

[Jon] So exactly how long does it take to get this oven up to temperature?

[Ms. Barker] It depends on how long you want to use it. Since we’re only baking a couple loaves of bread, it’s only about 2 hours. If you wanted to use it all day long, I would suggest maybe at least 3 hours.

[Jon] So tell me about the oven in the setting that we have here with your house.

[Ms. Barker] Well, this is the Zimmerman’s bake oven and they asked Doctor Campbell if they could put it on their property and this is the Inn so if you’re needing a place to stay they’ve got a really nice facility, but it’s managed by Doctor Campbell and this is a wonderful tool now that Mrs. Zimmerman has to use and we actually, my family being potters, we provided the clay. It’s mostly made out of clay, sand, and straw in different ratios and so it’s about 11 inches thick and 30 inches in diameter

[Jon] From the inside?

[Ms. Barker] Yes, so it could fit 6 loaves of bread very comfortably and it can keep heat for 6+ hours. So, once the oven has been swabbed out, we’re going to cast on some corn meal to see how hot the oven is. If the oven is too hot, the cornmeal will burn immediately and if that’s the case, just let it cool down some, but if it just toasts, then it’s ready to use.

[Jon] So the loaf is done, the bread smells amazing. I can’t wait to try this. I’ll let you cut into it.

[Ms. Barker] Yes indeed.

[Jon] Mmm, that’s wonderful. It’s got a great texture to it. What comes out for the most for you flavor wise?

[Ms. Barker] Definitely the cornmeal, and I would say I would put molasses on it instead of butter. More in it or more on it or both. That’s how I take my bread.

[Jon] Well, I really want to thank Ms. Barker for showing us this wonderful rye and Indian bread. Great recipe and not very difficult to do.

[Ms. Barker] Not indeed.

[Jon] And I really want to encourage everyone who is in this area to come and check out Connor Prairie. It is an amazing site. It really is something that if you are anywhere close, you really should try to come and visit it, there’s so many things here. I really want thank you for coming along with us as we savor the flavors and the aromas of the 18th and early 19th century.

I want to give a special thanks to all the folks at Connor Prairie and make sure to check out their website. If you’re new to our channel, I want to welcome you. You can subscribe by clicking the button right up here. Also, check out our related videos. Thanks so much for watching.

Simple Boiled Plum Pudding

Simple Boiled Plum Pudding

Many people hear the word pudding today and they think about some little custardy stuff in a cup or something you buy at the grocery store in a box and mix it up with some milk. Pudding has a much deeper richer history. The word pudding is based on the old English words for gut or for stomach. The original puddings were actually meat or organ meats mixed with grains and cooked in stomachs or in intestines, much like modern day sausage or, if you’ve ever heard of a Scottish haggis. Haggises are like a true old pudding.

So these original puddings had their ingredients stuffed in a stomach and tied off then put in boiling water for several hours. It wasn’t until the early 17th century when they started making these puddings in cloth sacks instead of in stomachs, and we started seeing the ingredients change a lot, too. Some of the meats were taken out and more grains and other things put in, so we start to see an evolution in puddings, and they started to become very popular in the 17th and 18th century.

So today we’re going to be working on a simple boiled plum pudding.

Plum Pudding

  • 1 cup Flour
  • ½ cup Milk
  • 1 whole Egg + 1 Egg Yolk
  • 4 oz. Butter
  • 1 tsp. Salt
  • Nutmeg
  • 1 tsp. Mace
  • Ground Ginger
  • Raisins
  • Currants
  • 1 tbsp. Sugar

Plum Pudding Sauce

  • 1 cup Sac Wine or Sherry
  • 2 tbsp. Sugar
  • 3 tbsp. Butter

Plum Pudding

You’re going to need a pot, at least a gallon or so, to boil the pudding in. You also need a pudding cloth, a piece of tightly woven fabric, something not soapy but nice and clean. Go ahead and toss your cloth in the pot of boiling water while we start mixing the batter. It’s going to stay there until the batter is all mixed up and ready to put inside of it.

Plum Pudding (Time 0_04_13;07)

First let’s start with our wet ingredients. We need 2 eggs separated. We want actually 1 whole egg and then just the yolk from the other one. With our egg and a half, we need to add about 4 ounces of milk, that’s half a cup. Whisk them up, get them mixed well, and set aside.

For the dry ingredients, in your mixing bowl add about 4 ounces of flour, about a cup. We used just plain rough ground wheat flour. We’re going to add some salt, not any great quantity, a teaspoonful or so. We’re also going to add our mace, again about a teaspoon full. The recipes aren’t real specific so it’s really how much you want, how much you like. Add some of the ground ginger, nutmeg, and finally we have about a tablespoon of sugar.

Plum Pudding (Time 0_06_03;16)

Now it’s time to get the butter into these dry ingredients. That’s going to be a little bit tricky. We’re going to use about 4 ounces of butter. You need to chop your butter up, put it in and then use the spoon to mush it around and then crumble it up to get it in there. Once you have that mixed pretty well, it’s time to add in the milk and eggs, then the raisins and currants.

Plum Pudding (Time 0_06_20;25)

So, we want to get a consistency that’s sort of a stiff battery kind of a drop biscuit consistency, not too stiff and not so runny that it runs around. If it’s too runny, add a little bit of flour. If it’s a little too stiff, add a little bit more milk until you get the right consistency.

Now let’s take our cloth out of the hot water. You want to be careful if it’s too hot. Lay it out on a bowl and flour the inside. Make sure that the whole inside of this is nice and floured. Now place the batter in the center, wrap it up and tie it off with another strip of fabric.

Plum Pudding (Time 0_07_20;17)

When you’re ready to put the pudding in, you want to make sure that the water is fully boiling. Then just gently drop it in. This is a smaller size pudding. It’s about a quarter of a normal recipe, so this one should take about 2 hours and maybe as much as 3 hours to cook. I wouldn’t cook it any more than that. You don’t really have a good way to know exactly when it’s done, because there isn’t a good way to check it, so you just have to know that this size takes about 2 hours. Usually, if it’s a full recipe, like most of the ones that use a pound of flour and a pound of suet, they are much bigger, almost a soccer ball size, and take quite a while to cook, 4 hours at least and probably more like 5 or 6.

Plum Pudding Sauce

When your pudding is almost done you need to get started on your sauce. You will need to add about a cup of our sac wine in a small pan or pipkin and then start to put in about 2 tablespoons of sugar. Just get these mixed in and warmed up.

Plum Pudding (Time 0_09_31;25)

Once it is warm, remove from heat and add about 3 tablespoons of butter in a little bit at a time. It’s best if your butter is cold so it won’t separate. You want to keep whisking and slowly incorporate the butter one piece at a time. As it gets incorporated, then you add the next little piece and just keep whisking the whole time.

Plum Pudding (Time 0_09_49;22)

Once the sauce is ready, set it away from the fire so it doesn’t heat up and separate and get the pudding out.

Plum Pudding (Time 0_10_51;11)

Place the pudding in cold water just to cool it off, then open it up turn it out onto a plate, slice it and gently add the sauce. Enjoy.

Plum Pudding (Time 0_11_27;26)

There are a lot of different variations of this that you can make, plain ones to go along with different meats, you can add vegetables, and you can change the grains. There are so many interesting things you can do with boiled puddings. I really encourage you to try one of these boiled puddings out. They were very popular for an 18th century dish.

Transcript of Video:

Puddings. Many people hear the word pudding today and what do they think about? They think about some little custardy stuff in a cup or something you buy at the grocery store in a box and mix it up with some milk. Pudding has a much deeper richer history. Today we’re going to look at boiled puddings from the 17th and 18th century.

So the word pudding is based on the old English words for gut or for stomach. In the original puddings were actually meat or organ meats mixed with grains and cooked in stomachs or in intestines, so much more like say, modern day sausage or, if you’ve ever heard of a Scottish haggis. Haggises are like a true old pudding.

So these original puddings had their ingredients stuffed in a stomach and then that tied off and they were put in boiling water and they were boiled for many hours. It wasn’t until the 17th century, the early 17th century, when there was a change, there was an evolution in this pudding. They started making these puddings in cloth sacks instead of in stomachs, and we started seeing the ingredients change a lot too. Some of the meats were taken out and more grains and some other things put in there, so we’re starting to see an evolution in puddings, and puddings started to become very popular in the 17th and 18th century.

Most of those puddings in the 18th century cookbooks call for 4 main ingredients. They called for flour. They called for milk. They called for eggs, and they called for some kind of fat. Usually suet is the one that’s most often referred to in the cookbooks. Suet can be very hard to come by in the United States. It’s not commonly used in cooking, so today we’re going to substitute butter for the suet.

So today we’re going to be working on a simple boiled plum pudding. Let’s get started.

So in addition to our four main ingredients, we’ve got some other smaller ingredients that we’re going to talk about now. We’ve got salt which is in most recipes. We also have a nutmeg we’re going to grate into that, which nutmeg is in all the different pudding recipes. We’ve got some mace which is in most of them which is related to nutmeg. We’ve got ground ginger. Ground ginger was inexpensive in the time period and a very commonly used spice. It’s a plum pudding and the plums aren’t plums, but they’re raisins in this. These have regular raisins. We also have some currants and currants in English cookbooks from the time period are actually just miniature seedless raisins from the Corinth region, and we also have some sugar that we’re going to add into this recipe.

So before we get going and start mixing things, we need to have some things happening in the background. I’ve got some water boiling here. We’re going to need a pot, at least a gallon or so, so that we can boil our pudding. We also need a pudding cloth, a piece of tightly woven fabric, something not soapy but nice and clean. I’m going to toss this in the pot and then we can start mixing. I’m just going to toss this cloth in. We’re going to leave it in here until I’ve got the batter all mixed up and ready to put inside of it.

Well, let’s start getting our ingredients mixed up. Let’s start with out wet ingredients. We need 2 eggs and we don’t want all of both of them, we want actually 1 whole egg and then just the yolk from the other one. This egg let’s separate out. We just want the yolk so I’m going to split this open and separate it. There we are.

So with our egg and a half here we’re going to add about 4 ounces of milk, and that should be about right. That’s half a cup. Let’s whisk this up and get these mixed well.

Okay, once we’ve got that mixed well, we’re going to set these wet ingredients aside.

So for our dry ingredients, we need our mixing bowl, we’re going to add about 4 ounces of flour, should be about a cup, and this is just plain rough ground wheat flour. We’re going to add some salt, not any great quantity, a teaspoonful or so. We’re also going to add our mace, again about a teaspoon full. The recipes aren’t real specific so it’s really a flavor, how much you want, how much you like, and some of the ground ginger. Now let’s grind up some of our fresh nutmeg.

Okay, looks about right, and finally we have about a tablespoon of sugar.

Now it’s time to get the butter into these dry ingredients. That’s going to be a little bit tricky. I’ve already chopped this butter up and I’m just going to put it in here and then use the spoon, mush it around and then crumble it up to get it in there.

In the period recipes, when they’re using suet, they actually were specific about not getting the suet too well mixed so that the suet would end up being in little pockets in the finished pudding and not spread completely throughout it. This, we want to get the butter pretty mixed up in here.

We’re going to use about 4 ounces of butter. Okay that looks pretty good. Now it’s time to mix in our milk and our eggs. Now it’s time to add our final ingredient here. We’re going to add our raisins and currants. Okay, there we are, and we’re going to mix those in well. So, we want to get a consistency that’s sort of a stiff battery kind of a drop biscuit consistency, not too stiff and not so runny that it runs around. If it’s too runny, add a little bit of flour. If it’s a little too stiff, add a little bit more milk. You’ll get to about this consistency. Let’s get the bag ready to put this in.

Now let’s take our cloth, we just brought it out of the hot water, you want to be kind of careful if it’s too hot, we’re going to lay it out on the bowl here and we’re going to flour the inside of our bag or our piece of cloth, so I’m going to take some flour and going to make sure that the whole inside of this is nice and floured. There we are, now we can get our batter here and put it in.

Now let’s wrap it up and we just need to tie this off. I’ve just got a little strip of fabric I’m going to use to tie it.

So, when we’re ready to put the pudding in, you want to make sure that the water is fully boiling. We’re going to drop this pudding in. This is a smaller size pudding. It’s about a quarter of a normal recipe, so this one should take about 2 hours and maybe as much as 3 hours to cook. I wouldn’t cook it any more than that. 2 hours is about right. You don’t really have a good way to know exactly when it’s done. I mean it’s not a good way to check it, so you just have to know that this size takes about 2 hours. That’s about it. Usually if it’s a full recipe size like most of the ones use a pound of flour and a pound of suet, those are much bigger, almost a soccer ball size, those take quite a while to cook, 4 hours at least and probably more like 5 or 6.

When our pudding is about done, it’s time to work on the sauce portion and we’ve got a nice red ware pipkin that we’re going to prepare our sauce in. Our sauce has 3 components. We’ve got some sac wine which is a white wine from Spain commonly known today as sherry. We need some sugar and then we’re going to add some butter, but first let’s put together the sac and the sugar and warm them up.

So, let’s warm up our pipkin. We’re going to add about a cup of our sac wine. There we go, and we’re going to start to put in our sugar. This is about 2 tablespoons of sugar we’re going to add in, and let’s get these mixed up and warmed up. So, let’s take our sac and our sugar off the fire now and now that it’s warm, we’re going to take and we’re going to add our butter in a little bit at a time. We’re going to stir it in, whisk it in, it’s best if your butter’s cold and that way it won’t separate. We’re going to add about 3 tablespoons of butter just a little bit at a time and keep whisking it up.

So you want to keep whisking and slowly incorporate the butter one piece at a time. As it gets incorporated, then you add the next little piece and just keep whisking the whole time.

That’s going to taste really good on this pudding. Our sauce we’re going to set that away from the fire so it doesn’t heat up and separate. Let’s get this pudding out.

Okay there it is.

Okay we’re going to put this in cold water here just to cool it off and now we can open it up.

Okay, let’s crack this open and I’ll turn it out onto a plate. Let’s see, ah, here, scissors.

And now a little sauce.

Mmm, this pudding’s really great. The sauce really lifts it up and the raisins are really, really good in this bready kind of a pudding mix. Very nice. You know, I’ve prepared some variations on this same basic recipe.

Here’s a cornmeal pudding. This one’s got butter but it’s a plain cornmeal pudding, like a cornmeal dumpling. Here’s a pudding that I did, it’s a plain bread pudding, but it’s got carrots in it though, and then here’s a final one over here. Here’s a suet and oatmeal. So there’s a lot of different interesting variations you can do, plain ones to go along with different meats, you can add vegetables, you can change the grains, so there’s so many interesting things you can do with boiled puddings. I really encourage you to try one of these boiled puddings out. Very popular for an 18th century dish.

So all the things you’ve seen here today, the utensils, the cooking equipment, even the clothing, all these things are available on our website or you can get our print catalog and don’t forget to follow us on Facebook and hey, I’m going to go eat the rest of this pudding.

Samp Cakes

Samp Cakes

Samp cakes have been a staple for Natives and Settlers for as long as corn has been around. This recipe has been found all over the Americas in different forms but it is foundationally the same recipe.

  • Cornmeal
  • Water
  • Dried Raspberries (optional)

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Mix your cornmeal with just enough water to make a thick paste. Add in dried raspberries or other dried fruit to taste.

You can cook these in two ways. The first is to wrap it securely in green leaves and place on the hot ashes of your fire for about 5 minutes, flipping halfway through. When your cake is firm it is done. The second is to bring a pot of water to a heavy rolling boil.

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Roll your cakes into a ball about the size of a golf ball and drop them into the pot. When your cake first goes in it will drop to the bottom, when it is ready to eat, it will float to the top.

These cakes taste nice dipped in maple syrup or as a side dish to any meal.

Transcript of Video:

Today, again I’m here at Connor Prairie, a premier living history site here in Fishers Indiana and we’ve got another great recipe for you. Thanks for joining us today on 18th Century Cooking.

[Jon] I’m here today at Connor Prairie. It’s a little rainy. Hopefully you can hear me well. I’m with Duncan McKinnon and he’s going to show us about samp cakes. So, tell me a little bit about exactly what these samp cakes are.

[Duncan] Well, it’s pretty simple, it’s nothing more than just cornmeal and water, but you mix it very heavy. It has to hold together because your going to do it in boiling water and the water has to be to a real boil.

[Jon] So how long has this kind of food, these cakes, how long have they been made?

[Duncan] Probably as long as the Native People have had corn.

[Jon] Okay.

[Duncan] It’s prevalent amongst all the tribes, East coast, here in the middle grounds, I’ve seen it in all my travels. I learned to do it from the Delaware. And the Delaware have their way of doing it and the other tribes have their way, but they’re all basically the same. It’s hard to say.

[Jon] So people have been doing it for a long time.

[Duncan] A long time.

[Jon] Well, let’s get started. What exactly do we need?

[Duncan] Alright, well we need cornmeal and we need the water, and I think what we might do first is do an ash cake while we’re waiting on our water to get a good rolling boil.

[Jon] Right.

[Duncan] So we’ll start with that.

[Jon] We’re adding dried red raspberries to this mixture to give these some flavor.

[Duncan] Alright, now what I’m going to do is I do them like this. It’s just the way that I do them, I roll them up. Some people would just take them and roll it up and roll the leaf around it, but I like to do mine like this. I mean, whatever you want to do is perfectly fine. Take and just strip me off

[Jon] Wait, that’s too thin.

[Duncan] Yeah, well, there you go.

[Jon] There we go.

[Duncan] Now, we can take that.

[Jon] Do you want another one?

[Duncan] This will be fine.

[Jon] Okay.

[Duncan] I think this will hold it. And we’ll do it like that and then we’ll just tie it in there and then I’m just going to set it on the ash.

[Jon] So, we’ve got the one already going in the ashes here, but there’s another way to cook this, right?

[Duncan] It is, and what you do is just like you would a dumpling and just do it up in a ball similar to a dumpling, make sure that your water has got a really rolling boil.

[Jon] Okay, so it’s got to be boiling water?

[Duncan] It has to be boiling water and when I say boiling I mean rolling boil.

[Jon] and we want something a little bit bigger than a golf ball?

[Duncan] yeah right about like that.

[Jon] Right

[Duncan] And drop that in that water, it’ll go to the bottom and the way to tell when it’s done is that it will float to the top.

[Jon] It’ll rise to the top when it’s done.

[Duncan] Rise to the top when it’s done.

[Jon] Okay so, you’ve got the one on the ashes, but we do want to flip this over right?

[Duncan] Right, you flip it over and give both sides, total time, about 5 minutes. When it’s firm, it’s done, just take it right off and then unwrap it and it’s ready to eat.

[Duncan] You’ll find it to be a little bit dry, but with the berries in there, it gives it more flavor and if you wanted to try a little bit of that maple syrup on it.

[Jon] Yeah. Ah, that makes all the difference. If you didn’t have anything else

[Duncan] You’d be glad you had it.

[Jon] Right. Very similar to ash cakes, you would do with other kinds of flour like wheat flour, but soldiers, I mean this would be all through this time period.

[Duncan] Oh certainly, I mean that was just a staple. I mean, they lived on corn and cornbread.

[Jon] Right, so we’ve got the boiled kind, let’s try this out. Alright

[Duncan] now, like I said, it’s boiled, very much like a dumpling.

[Jon] Okay

[Duncan] You’re going to find it has the consistency of a dumpling.

[Jon] Okay.

[Duncan] It’s not going to be as dry.

[Jon] Okay.

[Duncan] And it has a little sweeter taste.

[Jon] It certainly does. It brings out a whole different set of flavors because it was boiled.

[Duncan] Yup. I think it brings out more of the flavor of the berry into it.

[Jon] Yeah I get some saltiness that I didn’t get out of the dry cooked one and the texture is nice and soft. Would you eat these with other things?

[Duncan] Oh yeah certainly. That would just be a complement to whatever you had

[Jon] Right

[Duncan] A sauce so to speak.

[Jon] A sauce but maybe it’s a meat or other things

[Duncan] that you might have had

[Jon] Right, it’s a side dish maybe.

[Duncan] Oh yeah, It would go good with squirrel.

[Jon] Squirrel, oh I’ll bet. I want to thank Duncan McKinnon so much for showing us exactly how to make these samp cakes and letting me sample them. They’re so unique and interesting. I hope you get a chance to try them out and I hope you get a chance to come to Connor Prairie so you can see this for yourselves. An amazing site. You can check out their website. I’ll put a link down in the description section. It’s ConnorPrairie.org make sure to check that out. Thank you so much for coming along with us as we experiment, as we try these flavors and the aromas of the 18th and early 19th century.

I want to give a special thanks to all the folks as Conner Prairie and make sure to check out their website. If you’re new to our channel, I want to welcome you. You can subscribe by clicking the button right up here. Also, check out our related videos. Thanks so much for watching.

Plum Pudding

Plum Pudding

This is a wonderful variation of a plum pudding called hunter’s pudding that uses raisins for the plum. This dish was popular from the mid-18th century to the 20th century, found in British cookbooks and also popular in colonial America. Plum puddings were often associated with special occasions, served during certain holidays or when visitors came to visit. A hunter’s pudding was likely reserved for various special occasions such as a formal hunt, but that’s not to say ordinary people didn’t enjoy a hunter’s pudding on occasion. This recipe comes from “The Lady’s Assistant”, a 1775 cookbook published from Charlotte Mason’s manuscripts. This is a half batch, so if you want to make a full size batch, all you’ll need is double the ingredients and add an hour to the cooking time.

  • ½ lb. Flour
  • ½ lb. Suet (Kidney Fat)
  • ½ lb. Currants (dried, seedless, Corinthian Grapes)
  • 4 oz. Raisins
  • 2 tbsp. Candied Orange Peel
  • 2 tbsp. Candied Citron
  • 1 tsp. Nutmeg
  • 3-4 tbsp. Brandy
  • 4 Eggs
  • 1 cup Cream

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Preparing this pudding’s going to be very easy. We’re just going to add all of our dry ingredients plus our sweetmeats and mix well. Next whisk your eggs together in a separate bowl then combine your cream and brandy with the eggs. Once those are completely mixed, add them to your dry ingredients. This should make a pretty thick paste.

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Now when you’re going to boil a pudding, there are a few things you have to have ready to go. You need a couple of pots of water boiling.

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A large one will be for boiling the pudding itself. The smaller pot will be used to refill the water as it boils away in the larger one. You’ll also need a clean piece of cloth for each of the puddings you’re going to boil.

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Linen makes a really good pudding cloth, because the water makes the fibers swell up and the weave even tighter. You can also use cotton osnaburg. You’ll also need a stout cord to tie the cloth off with.

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Put your cloth into your boiling water for a few minutes to scald, then dust the pudding side with flour and lay in a bowl. Place your pudding dough into the cloth then tie the bag tightly around the dough.

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Place your pudding into the boiling water for 3 hours. Make sure to only replenish this water with boiling water. You want this water to not stop boiling at any time, because that will increase your cooking time.

Once your pudding has finished boiling, you will want to dip it in cold water for a few seconds to make it easier to remove the cloth without damaging the surface of your pudding.

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If you don’t want to spend 4 or 5 hours boiling a pudding at your next event, you can cook these ahead of time. You can cook these the week before if you leave them in their pudding cloth, then you can take them to the event. When you’re ready to use them, you can either boil them for an hour right before you need them or you can slice them cold and then either fry them or broil them.

These puddings were usually served with a sauce. The most common type is equal parts of butter, sugar, and sac.

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This pudding is very dense and rich. With all the raisins it’s very sweet. Compared to today’s palate, it was likely this would be the sweetest thing people of the 18th century would eat all year. This would make a great addition or finish to any celebration. You really should try these.

Transcript of Video:

Today I’m going to be doing something a little different. A dish that was popular all the way from the mid-18th century to the 20th century, found in British cookbooks and also popular in colonial America. We’re going to be making a hunter’s pudding. Thanks for joining us today on 18th Century Cooking with Jas Townsend and Son.

A hunter’s pudding is a type of plum pudding and a plum in this context means raisins. Plum puddings were often associated with special occasions, served during certain holidays or when visitors came to visit. The name hunter’s pudding may be a bit deceiving. We need to be careful about assuming that it was a favorite dish for backwoodsmen. Rather, a hunter’s pudding was likely a pudding that would have been reserved for various special occasions such as a formal hunt, but that’s not to say ordinary people didn’t enjoy a hunter’s pudding on occasion. Hunter’s puddings were popular from the mid 1700’s up until the beginning of the 20th century. Let’s get started.

We’re going to be making a recipe from “The Lady’s Assistant”, a 1775 cookbook published from Charlotte Mason’s manuscripts. We’re making half batches today, so if you want to make a full size batch, all you’ll need is double the ingredients. It will change the cooking time, so we’ll talk about that as we cook it, but to start, let’s look at the ingredients.

I’m using a half pound of flour and a half pound of suet. Now when I say suet, I mean kidney fat. In a previous episode, we explored the difference between suet and hard muscle fat and when it comes to making puddings, there’s a huge difference, so if you go to your butcher to ask for suet, make sure he gives you kidney fat. If you can’t find kidney fat to use or if you have neither the time nor the inclination to render it yourself, Jas Townsend and Son now carries Atora shredded suet. This suet is made from rendered kidney fat. It’s stabilized with a little flour. Because it’s rendered properly, it doesn’t need refrigerating.

In addition, we’re using a half a pound of currants. Unlike the fleshy red berries that go by the same name and are related to the gooseberry, these currants are small dried seedless Corinthian grapes. Also in our pudding we’ll be using about 4 ounces of raisins. Now raisins in the 18th century had seeds in them so they had to be cut open and seeds removed before they could be used in a recipe like this. There were different kinds of raisins in the 18th century. The best of the raisins were dried in the sun as opposed to dried in ovens. These were called raisins of the sun and most of the time they were imported in jars so they would be many times called jar raisins. The best of these raisins were called Malaga or Muscato raisins. They were grown in Spain and imported throughout much of Europe and North America. Our modern raisins are similar in quality to a midlevel jar raisin of the 18th century while having the convenience of being seedless.

Next we’re going to be adding a couple of tablespoons of candied orange peel and candied citron. Our recipe will also use about a teaspoon of nutmeg and 3-4 tablespoons of brandy. Now here’s something interesting about the addition of brandy into these puddings, it started to be added in the second half of the 18th century and in many of the recipes they find that the addition of the brandy helped in the preservation of the pudding and many times its noted that the puddings can be kept for up to 6 months if you keep the pudding still wrapped in its pudding cloth and kept up out of reach. This allowed cooks to make multiple puddings at once, serving one immediately and the others later on.

Finally, back to our recipe, we’ll need 4 eggs and 1 cup of cream. Now that’s it for the ingredients. Now that we’ve gathered them up, let’s put this pudding together.

Preparing this pudding’s going to be very easy. We’re just going to add all of our dry ingredients plus our sweetmeats.

And don’t forget to add the nutmeg.

That’s mixed quite well.

Okay, now that our dry ingredients are done, let’s move on to our wet ingredients. Let’s whisk our eggs together.

And then we’re going to add in our cream and our last wet ingredient, our brandy.

Now let’s add this to our dry ingredients.

It should make a pretty thick paste.

Now when you’re going to boil a pudding, there are a few things you have to have ready to go. You need a couple of pots of water boiling. Our large one will be for boiling the pudding itself. The smaller pot we’ll use to refill the water as the water boils away. You’ll also need a clean piece of cloth. One for each of the puddings you’re going to boil. Linen makes a really good pudding cloth. The water makes the fibers swell up and the weave even tighter. You can also use cotton osnaburg. Go ahead and scald these cloths.

You’ll also need a stout cord to tie the cloth off with. Remove the cloths from the boiling water and dust each with a little flour, then set each one aside, flour side up, into a bowl. Gather your pudding dough and place it on top of the cloth.

Tie the bag tightly around the dough.

Now it’s time to put this in the boiling water and boil it for 3 hours. You want to make sure to only replenish this water with boiling water. You want this water to not stop boiling at any time, because that will increase your cooking time.

Now like I said, this is a half size pudding. If you’re going to be doing a full size pudding, you’ll want to boil this for 4 hours.

Okay, the hunter’s pudding has boiled 3 hours. You’ll need a bucket of cold water on hand. By dipping the hot pudding in the cold water for a few seconds it will make it easier to get the cloth off without damaging the surface of your pudding.

If you don’t want to spend 4 or 5 hours boiling a pudding at your next event, you can cook these ahead of time. You can cook these the week before if you leave them in their pudding cloth, then you can take them to the event, when you’re ready to use them, you can either boil them for an hour right before you need them or you can slice them cold and then either fry them or broil them.

These puddings were usually served with a sauce and the sauce we’re using here is the most common type which is equal parts of butter, sugar, and sac.

Let’s give these a try.

And they’re a very dense and rich kind of food here. These are chalk full of raisins and they’re nice and sweet. In fact, compared to today’s palate, 18th folks were not used to such sweet things, so it’s likely that this would be the sweetest thing they would eat all year long. These would make a great addition or finish to a nice period meal and because you can fix them the week ahead of time, they’re a perfect kind of thing you can pull out of the hat and fry these up from something that’s been prepared without spending the 4 hours of boiling them at the event. You should really try these. These are wonderful dishes.

Very nice.

This recipe and many others are available on our SavoringthePast.net cooking blog. We also have an image reference blog of 17th and 18th century paintings and drawings called SiftingthePast.com. Make sure to subscribe to our YouTube channel so you don’t miss any upcoming episodes. And finally, our online catalog and our printed catalog that has hundreds of 18th and 19th century men’s and women’s clothing, historical cooking items, and camping items.

I want to thank you for joining us today as we savor the flavors and the aromas of the 18th century.

The Best Bread Pudding Yet

The Best Bread Pudding Yet

The Best Bread Pudding yet from The Primitive Cookery Cookbook 1767 is a very simple bread pudding to make.

Bread Pudding

  • ¾ cup Flour
  • 1 cup Bread Crumbs
  • 4 oz. Raisins or Currants
  • 2 tbsps. Sugar
  • ½ tsp. ground Ginger
  • 2 whole Eggs
  • 2 Egg Yolks
  • 1 cup Heavy Cream

Pudding Sauce

  • 1/3 Butter
  • 1/3 Sugar
  • 1/3 Brandy

Preheat oven to 350 degrees.

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Combine flour, bread crumbs, raisins, sugar and ginger in one bowl. In another bowl beat together the eggs, yolks, and heavy cream. Combine all the ingredients for a nice thick batter. Turn out into a well buttered dish. Bake for about 45 minutes at 350 degrees.

For sauce, melt butter and combine with sugar and brandy.

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Allow pudding to cool then turn out onto plate, slice and cover with sauce.

Transcript of Video:

Hi, I’m Jon Townsend. We’re continuing our series in Dutch oven cooking. Today we’re going to be using the skills that we’ve learned earlier to bake a pudding, a bread pudding, in one of these Dutch ovens. Thanks for joining us today on 18th Century Cooking.

This recipe is rather simple. It’s from the Primitive Cookery cookbook 1767. That cookbook is available on our website and in our print catalog. Let’s get these simple ingredients together. Our ingredients are rather simple. We’ve got ¾ of a cup of flour along with 1 cup of bread crumbs. Also 4 ounces of raisins or currants. I’ve got 2 tablespoons of sugar and just a half a teaspoon or so of ground ginger. For the wet ingredients, I’ve got 2 whole eggs and 2 egg yolks and one cup of heavy cream.

Now that we’ve got the wet ingredients all beat up, let’s pour them in, mix the two together. We’re looking for a nice thick batter.

I’m going to turn this out into a well buttered dish.

This is ready to go. Let’s put it in the oven. It’s a beautiful day out and there’s very little wind so we found by previous experience with a 12 inch Dutch oven like this, we’ll need about 2 scoops of coals beneath and 3 scoops on top. We want this to bake for about 45 minutes at 350 degrees. If you haven’t watched our previous episode where we talked about getting these ovens up to heat, make sure to go back and check those out. I’ll make sure to put a link down in the description section of this video. This is feeling like it’s really preheated and ready to go.

I’ve let this cool and we’re going to turn it out onto a plate and now slice it and oh yes we need finally, the thing that really sets all these puddings off is a pudding sauce. Do not forget the pudding sauce. This particular sauce is 1/3 butter, 1/3 sugar and 1/3 brandy, so let’s give this a try.

Mmm, superb flavors, and that sauce, I could eat that sauce all day, it is wonderful. A great little pudding, very easy to bake in one of these Dutch ovens. Extremely easy to mix up and very simple ingredients. This is superb. So we’re experimenting. We’re trying out different things and I really want to thank you for coming along as we savor the flavors and the aromas of the 18th century.

If you’re new to our channel, I want to welcome you. You can subscribe by clicking the button right up here. Also check out our related videos. Thanks so much for watching.

No-Knead French Bread

No-Knead French Bread

There is a bread baking technique that has been floating around the internet since about 2007, but it’s not a new idea, it’s been around for hundreds of years. A very simple dough with high moisture content that is baked in a Dutch oven. It’s called No-knead bread and, because of its simplicity and its great flavor, is a very innovative technique compared to modern bread baking methods. This no-knead bread is an 18th century French bread, though it is nothing like modern French breads which are known for being a firm white bread with an open crumb structure and a crispy crust. French breads in 18th century cookbooks are always made with milk and sometimes eggs and butter, had its crust either rasped away or chipped off with a knife, and was commonly used as an ingredient in other dishes such as porridges, soups, and even other breads.

No-Knead Bread (Time 0_02_35;18)

  • 3 Cups Flour
  • 1 ½ tsp. Salt
  • Barm or barm substitute:
    • ½ cup water
    • 1 heaping tbsp. Flour
    • ¼ – ½ tsp. Instant Yeast
  • 1 Egg White
  • 2 Egg Yolks
  • ¾ cup Milk
  • 2 tbsps. Melted Butter

In a large bowl, put 3 cups of flour, bread flour or all-purpose flour will do, and about 1½ teaspoons of salt.

The original recipe calls for barm and since nobody has barm, which is the foam from the top of beer, instead we’re going to make a substitute barm. In a separate container, let’s start with a half a cup of water. To that, add a heaping tablespoon of flour and a half a teaspoon of instant yeast, then we can stir this all together and let it rest.

Now for the rest of the wet ingredients, take just one egg white and add that to ¾ of a cup of milk and whisk together.

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Now take 2 tablespoons of melted butter and put that in with the 2 egg yolks and whisk those together.

Now let’s add all the wet ingredients together including the barm mixture, then mix the wet ingredients with the dry ingredients.

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As soon as the dough is formed and all the flour is absorbed, it’s time to stop mixing because they call for this dough not to be kneaded. It makes a very wet and sticky dough, a very light paste.

Cover the bowl with a damp cloth and set it aside 12-24 hours. You could divide this dough up and put it into smaller, well-floured bowls to make rolls as well.

Once it has a nice spongy texture to it, it’s time to preheat your Dutch oven. Don’t skimp on preheating this or your bread won’t turn out right. Once it is preheated, sprinkle some cornmeal into the bottom to keep it from sticking. If your Dutch oven is preheated correctly you should see the cornmeal brown up just a hair. If you’re going to bake this in your home oven, you’re going to want to set your oven to 450 degrees.

Turn your dough out onto a liberally floured surface. Now your dough may be very sticky, but that’s okay. It’ll help to flour your hands so that it doesn’t stick. Pat down the dough a little bit, then fold it a third of the way then fold the other side over on top of that, turn it and fold it over again the same way so that you folded it four times then place it in the Dutch oven.

Copy of No-Knead Bread Collage

You want to keep a close eye on this while it’s cooking. It’s going to take 25-30 minutes. You want it to be a nice deep golden brown without burning on the bottom.

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You want to make sure that your bread is completely cooled before you rasp or chip off the outer crust. The crust and also the French bread as it is, is used in many 18th century recipes.

Transcript of Video:

There’s been a very interesting bread baking technique that’s been floating around the internet since about 2007. It’s called No-knead bread. It uses a very simple dough, a high moisture content and it’s baked in a Dutch oven. I would encourage you to watch the video sometime, it’s very worthwhile. No-knead bread, because of its simplicity and its great flavor, is a very innovative technique compared to modern bread baking methods, but I’ll let you in on a little secret, now this is not a new idea. In fact, no-knead breads have been around for hundreds of years. Today I’m going to show you how to do an 18th century version of no-knead bread. We’re going to bake it in an 18th century manner. We’re going to use that old Dutch oven that so many modern bakers are falling in love with.

There are many different kinds of breads in the 18th century. Some of them were baked from very fine white flour, others made from very course flour, still others were made with wheat flour mixed with other grains, but today we’re going to focus on a bread known by the 18th century British and North American colonists as French bread. Now when I say French bread, what one might think is a baguette, a batard, or a brioche. Most people think of a French bread as a firm white bread with an open crumb structure and a crispy crust. Numerous 18th century English cookbooks contain recipes for French bread, but this French bread is nothing like the modern French bread. Modern breads made with just flour, water, yeast and some salt. No, these French breads in these 18th century cookbooks are always made with milk and sometimes eggs and butter. This English version of French bread was made into loaves or into rolls. The rolls were sometimes referred to as machete bread which can mean the quality of a bread or sometimes its size and shape. This French bread had its crust either rasped away or chipped off with a knife. 18th century French bread was commonly used as an ingredient in other dishes. The bread crust was often used in porridges, soups, even in other breads. Let’s make some of this French bread.

In a large bowl, let’s put 3 cups of flour, bread flour or all-purpose flour will do, and about 1 ½ teaspoons of salt. That’s it for the dry ingredients. Let’s do the wet ingredients. The original recipe calls for barm and since nobody has barm, which is the foam from the top of beer, instead we’re going to make a substitute barm. Let’s start with a half a cup of water. To that I’m going to add a heaping tablespoon of flour and then we need some yeast.  We’re going to use instant yeast. You need about a quarter of a teaspoon to a half a teaspoon and then we can stir this all together.

Now for the rest of the wet ingredients. I’m going to take just one egg white. Let me crack this egg, and we’re going to add that to ¾ of a cup of milk and whisk that together.

Now I’ve got here 2 tablespoons of melted butter and I’m going to put that in with 2 egg yolks and we’re going to whisk those together. Now let’s add this all together and we can put in our barm mixture too, and that’s it for our wet ingredients. Now we’ll mix the wet ingredients with the dry ingredients and I’ll mix them with these.

As soon as the dough is formed and all the flour is absorbed, it’s time to stop mixing. Now one of the interesting things about the 18th century recipes is that they call for this dough not to be kneaded. It makes a very wet and sticky dough. They call it in the recipe a very light paste. We’ll cover this with a damp cloth and set it aside 12-24 hours. We could divide this dough up and put it into smaller, well-floured bowls to make rolls.

Now we’ve prepared this batch ahead of time and it’s been rising about 18 hours so it’s got a very nice spongy texture, so it looks like it’s time to start preheating our Dutch oven.

We’re going to be baking our bread in a Dutch oven today. Baking bread in Dutch ovens is very common in the 18th century although our recipes don’t call for that specifically. We have this oven over the fire and it’s warmed up. Don’t skimp on preheating this. You want it to be nice and hot when you get started. I’m going to go ahead and sprinkle some cornmeal into the bottom of that. This’ll keep the loaf from sticking. Just a very thin layer here looks good, and it should brown up just a hair so you can see that the oven is getting the right temperature.

Now it’s time to look at our dough. Now I’m going to turn this out onto a liberally floured surface. Now your dough may be a lot stickier than this, but that’s okay, but it’ll help to flour your hands so that it doesn’t stick, and now let’s pat this down a little bit, let’s fold it once, let’s fold it twice, three times, and one last time. Four times we’re going to fold this and now let’s put it in our Dutch oven. You want to keep a close eye on this while it’s cooking. It’s going to take 25-30 minutes. You want it to be a nice deep golden brown without burning on the bottom.

If you’re going to bake this in your home oven, you’re going to want to set your oven to 450 degrees. There, that looks perfect. I’m going to take it off. And there it is, an 18th century enriched no-knead bread. Something that they called, in the time period, French bread. We want to make sure that our bread is completely cooled before we rasp or chip off the outer crust. The crust and also the French bread as it is, is used in many 18th century recipes.

I invite you to subscribe to our new blog, SavoringThePast.net. On there you’ll find recipes and discoveries about 18th century cooking. Also, make sure to subscribe to our YouTube channel so you can get notification of all the new videos as soon as they come out and of course follow us on Facebook so you can find out all the great news from Jas. Townsend and Son. Jas. Townsend and Son carries hundreds of quality 18th and 19th century reproduction clothing items and personal accessories, including a great line of cooking vessels and utensils. All these can be found on our website or in our print catalog. Thanks for watching and I invite you to come along and join us as we savor the aromas and flavors of the 18th century.

Payn Perdu (French Toast)

Payn Perdu (French Toast)

Who doesn’t like a nice big plate of French toast? Nice firm bread soaked in eggs with milk, maybe garnished with a little bit of fresh fruit, some cinnamon and slathered over the top with maple syrup. Have you ever wondered where this dish came from? What genius mind created it and who throughout history savored this delectable dish?

Pain Perdu (Time 0_01_20;19)

The earliest recipe for French toast can be found in the Apicius. It’s a 4th and 5th century collection of Roman recipes. The dish is simply titled A Sweet Treat and the translation reads thus, “Break a slice of fine white bread, crust removed, into rather large pieces, soak in milk and beat in eggs, fry in oil, cover in honey, and serve.”

Bread was extremely important to survival in the 18th century, but what does one do when the bread goes stale? In an old English cookbook from about 1430, we find a recipe for bread that’s sliced, dipped in eggs, fried in butter and then sprinkled with a little bit of sugar. The name of this recipe was payn perdu, a French word that means lost bread or wasted bread, suggesting that this recipe was meant to use up stale bread.

Pain Perdu (Time 0_02_09;22)

Karen Hess who transcribed Martha Washington’s Booke of Cookery has this to about the recipe, “The English early took to payn perdu and made it their own. It was rarely omitted from a cookbook, usually listed under made dishes. Made dishes are any dish that amuses the cook or shows off her skill.”

Let’s make French toast or payn perdu in a true 18th century fashion.

French Toast

  • Any firm bread made stale
  • 8 Egg Yolks
  • 1 cup Cream
  • ¼ cup Sac
  • 2 tbsps. Sugar
  • Nutmeg
  • Butter

Sauce

  • 4 tbsps. Butter
  • 2 tbsps. Sac
  • 1 tbsp. Sugar

You can use any nice enriched bread. The no knead French bread like we made in a previous episode would be perfect. If you want to use a modern bread, you can use a challah bread or a brioche. Any firm bread will do.

Cut the crust off and let it set out overnight, so we start off with stale bread.

Pain Perdu (Time 0_03_21;19)

In a bowl, take about 8 egg yolks; add about a cup of cream, about a quarter of a cup of sac, and two tablespoons of sugar. Finally, scrape in a little bit of nutmeg and whisk this all together.

Pain Perdu (Time 0_03_35;05)

Now let’s take our individual bread pieces and put them in the batter and let them set for maybe 15 minutes or up to an hour to get them a real good chance to soak in. It really depends on how stale your bread is. While the bread is soaking, you can go ahead and start on the sauce, because we want to have the sauce ready to put on it as soon as they’re cooked.

Pain Perdu (Time 0_04_26;08)

We’re going to start off with about four tablespoons of butter and then once that’s melted, add in about two tablespoons of sac, and a tablespoon of sugar. Now you want to whisk this all together and set aside where it will stay warm, but won’t cook.

Pain Perdu (Time 0_04_56;19)

Once the toast has finished soaking, melt the butter in your frying pan and put in the toast. If your bread’s really stale, sometimes it can be very fragile so you might have to be careful as you put it in the pan. Cook them until they are golden brown on both sides, flipping once halfway through cooking.

Pain Perdu (Time 0_05_18;03)

This topping’s a little different from what you and I might expect or what we’re used to, but it’s taste is right out of the 18th century cookbooks. Maple syrup is a perfect North American variation on the same theme to replace the sugar.

Transcription of Video:

Mmm. Who doesn’t like a nice big plate of French toast? Nice firm bread soaked in eggs with milk, maybe garnished with a little bit of fresh fruit, some cinnamon and slathered over the top with maple syrup. Have you ever wondered where this dish came from? What genius mind created it and who throughout history savored this delectable dish? Well that’s what we’re going to look at today in 18th Century Cooking with Jas. Townsend and Son.

We’re wrapping up our second series of 18th Century Cooking with Jas. Townsend and Son. Most recently we’ve been looking at 18th century breads and we thought it would be appropriate to conclude this series with a little sweet treat made with bread.

The earliest recipe for French toast can be found in the Apicius. It’s a 4th and 5th century collection of Roman recipes. The dish is simply titled A Sweet Treat and the translation reads thus, “Break a slice of fine white bread, crust removed, into rather large pieces, soak in milk and beat in eggs, fry in oil, cover in honey, and serve.”

Bread was known as a staff of life. It was a dietary pillar, but what does one do when one’s bread goes stale? In an old English cookbook from about 1430, we find a recipe for bread that’s sliced, dipped in eggs, fried in butter and then sprinkled with a little bit of sugar. The name of this recipe was Payn perdu, a French word that means lost bread or wasted bread, suggesting that this recipe was meant to use up stale bread.

Karen Hess who transcribed Martha Washington’s Booke of Cookery has this to say in a recipe after Payn Perdu. It says, “The English early took to Payn Perdu and made it their own. It was rarely omitted from a cookbook, usually listed under made dishes. Made dishes are any dish that amuses the cook or shows off her skill.”

Let’s make French toast or Payn Perdu in a true 18th century fashion.

We’re going to start off with a nice enriched bread. The no knead French bread like we made in our last episode would be perfect. If you want to use a more modern bread, you can use a challah bread or a brioche, any firm bread will do.

We’ve cut the crust off this and we’ve let it set out overnight, so we’re starting off with a nice stale bread. I’m going to start off here with about 8 egg yolks and to that I’m going to add about a cup of cream and I’m also going to add some wine, some sac here. We’re going to use about a quarter of a cup. Now I’m going to add about two tablespoons of sugar and finally I’m going to scrape in a little bit of nutmeg and we’ll whisk this all together.

Now let’s take our individual bread pieces and put them in the batter.

I’m going to let these set for maybe 15 minutes or up to an hour to get this a real good chance to soak in. It really depends on how stale your bread is. While these toasts are steeping, I’m going to go ahead and start on our sauce, because we want to have the sauce ready to put on it as soon as they’re cooked.

We’re going to start off with about four tablespoons of butter and then once that’s melted, let’s add in about two tablespoons of sac, and after the sac we’re going to add about a tablespoon of sugar.

Now you want to whisk this altogether, then you want it to get nice and warm, but we’re really not cooking it, we’re just really mixing it together, so what I’m going to do is set this aside where it’ll stay nice and warm waiting for us to put it on.

I’ve got the butter going in the pan, let’s put in our toasts. If your bread’s really stale, sometimes it can be very fragile so you might have to be careful as you put it in the pan.

These look done. Let’s get them out of here.

Here’s our Payn Perdu, an early version of French toast. Let’s give it a try.

Mmm. That is excellent. This topping’s a little different from what you and I might expect or what we’re used to. Very nice. Right out of the 18th century cookbooks. Maple syrup as a topping is a perfect North American variation on that same theme. They’re substitute for sugar, maple syrup. Excellent.

We hope you’ve enjoyed this episode of 18th Century Cooking with Jas. Townsend and Son. Be sure to watch for more episodes in the near future. Also, make sure to check out our new cooking blog SavoringThePast.net for today’s recipe as well as other documentation and discoveries in 18th century cooking.

All the clothing you’ve seen here today and all the cooking accessories, all these things are available in our print catalog or on our website. I want to invite you to subscribe to our YouTube channel and follow us on Facebook and I want to thank you for joining us as we savor the flavors and the aromas of the 18th century.

Here’s our Payn Perdu an early version of French toast. Let’s give it a try.

That is excellent. You know, It is, it’s really… {Beep}

Mmm. That is excellent. Tha… the… the…. Gosh… {Beep}

So that’s why you see maple syrup in so many different… mmmm… that was stupid… {Beep}

Ahh, that is, that is super {Beep}

This would be used as a dessert, not as a brexst, breakfast… {Beep}

Mmm, that is excellent. This topping’s a little bit different than what you and I mi(cough)… Here I get it stuck in my throat and I can’t talk. {Beep}

Have you ever wondered where this comes from? I have. (Laughing)

Simple Apple Pudding

Simple Apple Pudding

So I haven’t found much about soldiers doing boiled puddings yet, but there is a piece in Joseph Plum Martin’s book about soldiers coming and stealing a woman’s food, including her pudding, bag and all.

There are many period recipes that cover putting apples inside of a pudding and boiling it, so I thought we’d put together a simple pudding that a soldier could have made with nothing but flour and an apple off of a tree wrapped in a little bit of scrap cloth. Just what a soldier might be able to make.

  • 1 Whole Apple
  • Couple handfuls of Flour
  • Water

First you want to make sure that you have your pot of water to boil on the fire and in the water you need to place your cloth for your pudding.

Apple Pudding (Time 0_02_13;23)

So let’s make up a very simple paste with nothing but flour and water. We’re just going to take about two handfuls of flour, add in some nice cool water, and then mix it up. We want it to be a thick, but not very stiff, paste. We want to be able to form it around the apple without fighting it. It will thicken up a little more as you prepare your apple.

Apple Pudding (Time 0_02_42;15)

Once your paste is ready, we need to take the apple and quarter it, removing the seeds and stem. Now take the quartered apple and put it back together into an apple shape and take the paste, and we’re just going to wrap it around that apple so it’s about a quarter of an inch thick. It will grow as it cooks so it doesn’t need to be terribly thick.

Apple Pudding (Time 0_03_15;13)

At this point, you can remove your cloth carefully from the boiling water and dust it with flour. Once that is done, set your pudding in the center and gather up the edges to tie it. Don’t tie it too tight, you definitely want to give it a little bit of room so that it can grow while it’s cooking. Then go toss it in the boiling water.

This should take about an hour for this apple pudding.

Apple Pudding (Time 0_08_18;18)

You’d be amazed with nothing but a little bit of flour and one apple what you can turn out. It is really good.

Transcript of Video:

So in last week’s episode, we covered a simple boiled plum pudding, which consisted of equal parts flour, milk, eggs, butter, and the plums or raisins in that case, but I thought we would look at the boiled puddings and explore this idea a little bit farther. I think there’s a lot more to learn.

So here’s a little piece that I ran into while I was doing research. It’s from a 1780 gentleman’s monthly intelligence. It was a section on diet. It says, “There is at this time residing in Essex a person famed for his mode of living. Being formally reduced to a state of general weakness from free and luxurious living, he took up a resolution of dieting himself thus, he has a pound of flour and a pint of cold water mixed and then tied up in a cloth and boiled and on this food he’s lived entirely for many years. Though he is old, he is hardy, strong, vigorous and active.”

I thought that was very interesting, somebody living on nothing but flour, a flour pudding, boiled, and then I was thinking about soldiers living on nothing but their meat and a simple flour ration.

Also, many period recipes cover putting apples inside of a pudding and boiling that. Those two ideas, I thought we’d put together and make a simple soldier style pudding. Nothing but flour, an apple off of a tree and wrapped in a little bit of scrap cloth. Just what a soldier might be able to make.

So let’s make up a very simple, nothing but flour and water  paste. We’re just going to take about two handfuls of flour and we’re going to add in some nice cool water and then mix that up. We kind of want it to be not very stiff kind of a paste here. Okay, so not too stiff. We want to be able to form it around it without it fighting.

Once that’s ready, we need to take our apple and I’ve already quartered this. We’re going to take out the seeds and the stem.

Let’s take our quartered apple and put it back together into an apple shape and then take our paste, which has thickened up a little bit as I was working on it, and we’re just going to wrap it around that apple so it’s all about a quarter of an inch thick. It grows as it cooks so it doesn’t need to be terribly thick.

And there we can see, now we can put this inside of our floured cloth.

There we are.

And let’s flour this up.

And now it’s time to wrap it up in the cloth. We’re just going to set it in the center and gather it up, and you definitely want to give it a little bit of room so that it can grow while it’s cooking. Not too tight. Let’s go toss it in.

Let’s make sure our water is boiling and it should take about an hour for this apple pudding. While this is cooking, we’re going to cover a quaking pudding. Those don’t take very long to cook either.

So, quaking pudding is much more like that modern day pudding idea that we have in our heads. Let’s take a look at the ingredients.

So, let’s put together this pudding. We’re going to put together our dry ingredients first and then our wet ingredients. We’re going to need about a half a cup of flour. Now we don’t have to be precise. This is definitely different than the plum pudding. The ratios are much different, a lot less flour and a lot more liquid parts. About a half a cup of flour, now let’s put in, we need about 2 tablespoons of sugar, we’ve got this pretty much all ground up.

There we are.

We need some salt, maybe a half a teaspoon of salt. We’re definitely going to need some of those same kind of spices. We’ve got some mace here, a teaspoon full. We’ve got some ground ginger, same amount. So, you’ll need a quarter to a half of a nutmeg grated up. For our last dry ingredient I have some almonds here. I’ve got maybe a half a cup of slivered almonds here. We’re going to mash these up.

Once these are good and mashed up, we can add these to our dry ingredients, the rest of them here. There we are.

Now we need a cup of heavy cream and four eggs. We actually want two whole eggs and just the yolks of the other two and then we’re going to whisk these together, so there are eggs in our cream. You want to get these whisked really well.

Now that we’ve got these all mixed, put our wet and dry ingredients together.

There we are.

Once these are well mixed, we need to get our pudding cloth ready. Okay, now we’ve got our cloth but instead of putting it in the boiling water and then flouring it, this one we want to seal a little tighter, so we’re going to butter it first and then flour it. Get it to seal all the way into our fabric there. Now once it’s buttered, we can just put our flour on just like before.

Now we can take our buttered and floured cloth and put it in the bowl and pour our pudding mix in.

There we are, and tie it up.

This is another pudding that you want to give a little bit of room to grow. And there we go, and it’s ready to go in. Let’s make sure that water’s boiling.

Okay, this quaking pudding should take about a half hour to cook.

Now that that quaking pudding is cooking, we’re going to make a quick sauce with some butter and some sugar.

When you use these pipkins, you want to make sure that you don’t put them on direct heat with flames. You want to use them only on coals. You want to make sure that you always have something in them or else they get too hot and they’ll crack and use them gently with gentle heat.

It’s been about a half hour for the quaking pudding and about an hour for the apple one, so both of those should be ready to come out.

Let’s cut open this apple pudding or apple dumpling.

And there is our pudding. Let’s slice it and see how it turned out.

Look at that.

You’d be amazed with nothing but a little bit of flour and one apple what you can turn out. It is really good.

So I haven’t found much about soldiers doing boiled puddings yet, but there is a piece in Joseph Plum Martin’s book about soldiers coming and stealing a woman’s food, including her pudding, bag and all.

Now for our quaking pudding. This one’s a little bit more, you have to be more gentle with it. Now let’s dress this up with a few slivered almonds and then put sauce on top.

Wow, that’s delectable. You’ll love this wonderful quaking pudding. A lot more custardy than the other one. It’s not nearly as bready and that butter and sugar on top with the almonds, it looks beautiful and it tastes good.

You’ve got no excuse. You really must try one of these wonderful boiled puddings. Hey, all the things you’ve seen here today, all the cooking equipment, all the clothing, all these things are available on our website, they’re available in our print catalog and don’t forget to follow us on Facebook.

A Simple Recipe For On The Trail

A Simple Recipe for on the Trail

“To make Norfolk dumplings, mix a good thick batter as for pancakes, take a half a pint of milk, 2 eggs, a little salt, make it into a batter with flour. Have ready a clean saucepan of water boiling into which you drop the batter before the water boils fast and two or three minutes will boil them. Stir a piece of butter into them and eat them hot while they’re very good.”

  • Flour
  • Salt
  • Water
  • Milk (optional)
  • 1 or 2 eggs (optional)

On the Trail (Time 0_01_13;21)

This is a super simple recipe. It uses only flour, salt, milk, and egg. If you’re on a trail and you don’t have milk or eggs, you can just use water with this recipe and it will work out just fine.

On the Trail (Time 0_02_23;06)

Start off with whisking up your egg, then add about a cup of milk, but hold back some of your milk in case your batter becomes a little too thick later on. Next add some flour to the mix along with a little bit of salt.

On the Trail (Time 0_02_46;05)

You want the consistency to be just a little thicker than you would make for pancakes so that it doesn’t break up when it goes into the water but not so thick as to make a dough.

On the Trail (Time 0_03_03;27)

Once your water has just barely started boiling, place your dumplings in by the spoonful. Depending on how hot your water is boiling these can take anywhere from 2-5 minutes.  They have a wonderful little bready consistency.

On the Trail (Time 0_03_47;13)

They will be a little bland with so few ingredients but the texture is wonderful and they would go great in something like a stew or soup that you make on the trail, especially a super simple one. If you have been on the trail all day and you’re really tired and cold, this is the perfect meal because there are very few ingredients and it is so easy to put together and so quick to cook up.

Transcript of Video:

Today is a fun and kind of a different episode. I’m out here in the woods today and we’re going to be doing a very simple Norfolk dumplings recipe. This one’s from the Primitive Cookery cookbook but you’ll also find it in Hanna Glass’s cookbook of say 1747. Thanks for joining us today on 18th Century Cooking.

Well, I’ve got water on to boil. Let me read you this very simple recipe in this little cookbook. It says, “To make Norfolk dumplings, mix a good thick batter as for pancakes, take a half a pint of milk, 2 eggs, a little salt, make it into a batter with flour. Have ready a clean saucepan of water boiling into which you drop the batter before the water boils fast and two or three minutes will boil them. Stir a piece of butter into them and eat them hot while they’re very good.”

This is a super simple recipe. It uses just flour, a little bit of salt, milk, 1 egg. We want to make it a really thick batter. We don’t want it to break up as we put it into this boiling water. It’s going to take a good bit for this water to get boiled. The other trick with this recipe, if you’re on a trail and you don’t have some of these special ingredients, you don’t have eggs with you, which is very, very common that you wouldn’t have eggs, milk is something that you’re not going to have on the trail, the question is would this work out just as fine if we didn’t have milk or eggs but we just used water and flour? I’m betting that’s going to work out just fine too. That’s probably going to be the most common version that you would do on the trail or in the camp when you don’t have lots of ingredients to work with and I’ve got just the simplest of mixing utensils here. I’ve got a little wire fork and just one simple wooden spoon along with a mixing bowl. Just the minimal equipment is what we’re going with here and of course I’ve got one of our tin cooking pots to cook our dumplings in.

Let’s start off with just one egg here and whisk this up. To this egg I’m going to add let’s say about a cup of milk. I’m going to hold a little back here in case the mix is a little too thick later on. Now let’s add some flour into this mix, and we’re going to add enough flour that we think we’re going to get to a thick batter. Of course she doesn’t say anything about how much flour, you just add as much as gets to the right consistency, and don’t forget to add a little bit of salt before you get this fully mixed up. Maybe a little thicker than I would consider a pancake mix but still a batter, not a dough necessarily.

Well, my fire has built up nicely and it’s just starting to boil so let’s put some of these dumplings in by the spoonful. There we go. I’m not sure exactly what Hanna Glass intended when she put this very simple recipe in her cookbook but the author or the collector of recipes for Primitive Cookery saw this recipe and knew that it was perfect for simple cooking for inexpensive cooking and that’s why they picked it out and put it into this little cookbook. It’s sort of a compilation of simple inexpensive recipes.

There we go, they’re ready. They’ve been in probably a little bit longer than the two or three minutes, but I didn’t have a really hot boiling thing going on here, so let’s take a look.

So, let’s see how these turned out. They look pretty simple and they are obviously. Just a few ingredients, but they have a wonderful little, kind of a little bready consistency. Obviously they’re a little bland, because they’re just not amazing flavors in there. We haven’t put a lot of ingredients in there, but it’s got a wonderful texture and this would go great in something like a stew or a soup that you make on the trail, especially a super simple one. On the trail, we can’t expect amazing, intense flavors, “Oh, this is the best thing I’ve ever had!” Sometimes when you’re really tired and you’re cold and you’ve just built a fire like this and you’ve walked a long way, you carried what you’ve got with you, this is an amazing meal because you’ve made it yourself and you brought all the things along with you and there’s just a very, very few ingredients. I really want to encourage you to get out this spring, get outdoors, get cooking some of these amazing simple things. They are incredible. This is such a wonderful time of year to get out and to get active and to really kind of get into the grove again of summer.

I want to thank you for joining along with me today and this experiment as we savor the flavors and the aromas of the 18th century.

If you’re new to our channel I want to welcome you. You can subscribe by clicking the button right up here. Also, check out our related videos. Thanks so much for watching.

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